Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Concept Of Reciprocity In Discourse Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Concept Of Reciprocity In Discourse - Assignment ExampleThese morphemes imply some change of a back and forth movement. Reciprocity is also related to feedback, interaction and causality. In a quarrel situation when a speaker puts across his message, the hearer listens to it and signals that he has heard it. This is the feedback. This takes place constantly amidst the speaker and the attendee, and there is interaction among them. The response of a speaker depends upon what he hears. The speech is a fix and the response is the effect. Hence, there is causality involved in reciprocity.2.Concept Of Reciprocity In DiscourseA speech situation involves a speaker and a attender. Reciprocity condition of speech refers to the relation amid the speaker and the listener in the process of speech. ( Bygate, 1987 ) Speech is a reciprocal activity. At this point, it is obligatory to discern between speech and writing. The way language is organized in speech is different from the way it i s organized in writing. In order to speak fluently, a speaker must use up grammatical capacity which includes knowledge of vocabulary, pronunciation, sentence structure and meaning. But speaking does not mean merely putting unitedly words in a grammatical structure. The capacity to use language appropriately is called communicative competence. It is the knowledge that underlines the use of grammatical competence in communicative situations. Speech situation consists of various factors like topic, purpose, affable relations, environment etc. These differ from culture to culture and community to community. In short, speaking is not a discrete skill. It overlaps a number of other areas. Structure of conversation is culturally determined. ( Hughes, R., 2002 ) Now let us look closely at what happens when two people speak. The speaker has a message which he encodes and transmits to the listener through speech. The listener listens to the speech and decodes the message. The listener t hen responds in the same way, by transmitting a message. Hence, the speaker becomes the listener and vice versa. An individual takes turns at being a speaker and a listener alternately. This is called turn taking. In a speech event, the participants are face-to-face and the turn-taking is a continuous process. Hence, we imbibe that casual conversations are also organized by rules. People take turns at speaking and listening, they event questions, mark the beginning and end of a conversation, make mistakes and correct themselves. All this needs some manikin of direction and control on the part of the speakers. People do not say I have finished now. You can answer my question. Conversations are organized covertly and the organizational principles provide a discerning interactional framework. It is within this framework that reciprocity takes place. Reciprocity develops during the ongoing negotiation of meaning between speaker and listener, thus producing a joint construction of c ommunication. ( Byrne D., 1987 ) Reciprocity involves the use of turn-taking skills, strategies to interrupt and to control the topic, which are necessary to maintain meaningful interaction. During conversations, individuals follow norms like politeness principles and co-operative principles. They also reciprocate each others verbal and non-verbal behavior. In a social intercourse, people are obligated to help and not to harm those who help them. companionable activity is also reciprocal and ubiquitous. The ability to appropriately reciprocate or compensate a fellows communicative response is an essential element of communicative

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